January 6, 2022 | Reading Time: 5 minutes

The J6 coup failed because the clock ran out. The GOP now has plenty of time to get it right

From quiet proceduralism to violent insurrection and back again.


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We have arrived at the one year anniversary of January 6, 2021, when supporters of the president waged war against a co-equal branch of government. The public has since been receiving piecemeal information about both this violent insurrection and the quieter plots that preceded it. While there are many unknowns, here is what is certain: there was an attempted coup on American soil. 

In the weeks leading up to January 6, Trump and allies plotted to overturn the election and undemocratically seize power from President-elect Joe Biden. Then, on January 6, Trump supporters attacked the Capitol, potentially delaying certification. 

Gina Haspel, the CIA director, voiced concern about Donald Trump’s extensive restructuring of Pentagon power, allegedly telling the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Mark Milley: “We are on the way to a right-wing coup.”

Many have viewed these two threads – the ostensibly soft coup and the hard coup – as perhaps independent events. It’s important, now, to outline what we know about the extent to which these various plots – from quiet proceduralism to violent insurrection – were intertwined. 

The Eastman plot
In the weeks before January 6, 2021, Trump and allies mounted a multipronged scheme to overturn the election. Their command center was a “war room” at the Willard Hotel, in Washington, DC. Between November and January, the team mounted multiple legal challenges, as Trump secretly pressured state election officials, as well as his own attorney general, to assist in his effort.

Parallel to this was a scheme outlined by John Eastman, in a now infamous memo: On January 6, Vice President Mike Pence could throw out electors from key states if they had proposed alternate electors, kicking the election to Trump. Trump and allies repeatedly tried to convince Pence to agree to this plot, both in private and in public.

But as January 6 approached Trump’s ability to carry out his coup became more tenuous. Why? Many Republicans in the states in question were willing to comply, but they needed more time. On January 5, 2021, the far-right Breitbart published a story that made this point explicit: “88 State Legislators ask VP Pence to Postpone ‘Opening and Counting of the Electoral Votes for at Least 10 Days.’”

The Eastman plot was, in fact, unfolding in plain sight.


Coordination between Trump and insurrectionists?
At this point in time, there is no public evidence that Trump and his allies were coordinating with the insurrectionists with the explicit goal to stage an attack. We have not seen, for example, text messages in which a Trump ally has said, “We want you to storm the Capitol.” 

We do, however, have plenty of other evidence that paints a chilling portrait of possible, if not likely, coordination. 

The insurrectionist groups mingled with Trump’s team in the days before January 6. Members of the Oath Keepers, Proud Boys and Stop the Steal were gathered at the Willard Hotel on the night of January 5. The Oath Keepers served as personal security to Trump’s ally Roger Stone on January 5 and 6. Crucially, at least one of the Proud Boys has admitted their plan was to stop the transfer of power.  

Members of these same groups were also in contact with Trump’s allies in Congress and in the GOP at large prior to January 6. In December, Ali Alexander, founder of Stop the Steal, texted Mo Brooks, a Republican representative, writing that “January 6 is a big moment in our Republic” and that his group would be in DC to “stand ready to help.” 

Alexander told Brooks that Michael Flynn would be in contact. During this period, Alexander tweeted, “I am willing to give my life for this fight.” That was retweeted by the Arizona GOP, who asked: “He is, are you?” Other organizers of the Stop The Steal rally allegedly met with “close to a dozen” Republican lawmakers or staff prior to January 6. 

Additionally, January 6 rally organizers allegedly bought burner phones (cheap, pre-paid and disposable) to communicate with officials connected to Trump on the day of the insurrection. One such organizer, Kylie Kremer, had formed a Facebook group “urging boots on the ground.”

Katrina Pierson, a Trump ally who was organizing the January 6 rally, arranged for the most extreme members of the pro-Trump crowd — such as Alex Jones and Ali Alexander — to give speeches on January 5. 

That evening, Alexander inspired the crowd to chant, “Victory or Death!”

Many have viewed these two threads – the ostensibly soft coup and the hard coup – as perhaps independent events. It’s important, now, to outline what we know and what questions are outstanding about the extent to which these various plots – from quiet proceduralism to violent insurrection – were intertwined. 

This same day, Mark Meadows, Trump’s chief of staff, sent an email informing an individual that the National Guard would “protect pro-Trump people.” There is evidence of contact between insurrectionists and Mark Meadows. According to a House report, Meadows “exchanged text messages with, and provided guidance to, an organizer of the January 6 rally … after the organizer told him ‘[t]hings have gotten crazy and I desperately need some direction.’” 

Finally, we know that, once the attack was underway, John Eastman attempted to exploit the violence to further the coup. He wrote to Pence’s lawyer during the insurrection. “The ‘siege’ is because YOU and your boss did not do what was necessary.” 

Keli Ward, head of the Arizona GOP, tweeted, “Congress is adjourned. Send the elector choice back to the legislatures.” Later that evening, Eastman wrote to Pence’s lawyer again, arguing that, given the debate had exceeded the allotted time, Pence should reject the electors from Arizona, just as was outlined in Eastman’s memo.

The military
When we’re talking about coups, we have to talk about the military.

The details of what, exactly, was going on with the military between November 3, 2020, and January 6, 2021, remain murky. What we do know, however, paints a portrait of internal conflict, such that members of Trump’s team repeatedly attempted to exploit hard power in their coup attempt, whereas other members of the military took extraordinary measures to prevent this same action. 

On November 9, 2020, Trump fired Defense Secretary Mark Esper for insufficient loyalty and replaced him with Christopher Miller, who then served as Acting Defense Secretary. Trump also installed Ezra Cohen-Watnick, a Michael Flynn ally, to the position of Undersecretary for Intelligence and Security. Trump installed other loyalists at the Pentagon, including one who had publicly called for martial law. 


After Esper was fired, Gina Haspel, the CIA director, voiced concern about Trump’s extensive restructuring of Pentagon power, allegedly telling the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Mark Milley: “We are on the way to a right-wing coup.” Her concerns were well-founded. 

During this same period, Michael Flynn contacted the newly installed Cohen-Watnick to request that the DoD begin to “effectuate orders and seize ballots.” There would be, Flynn said, “an epic showdown over the election.” Sydney Powell, a lawyer advising Trump, also called Cohen-Watnick and tried to enlist him in a plot to detain Haspel in Germany. Powell allegedly cited a Qanon conspiracy that Haspel was on a secret mission to destroy evidence of rigged voting machines. When speaking to Cohen-Watnick, Powell asked for a special operations mission to detain and force a confession from the CIA director.

Meanwhile, Acting Defense Secretary Miller and Chairman Milley were increasingly concerned about what would unfold on January 6, though their theories of violence diverged. Milley was concerned that troops, if placed on the streets, could be redirected by Trump to do his bidding. Miller had a different fear: he did not necessarily believe Trump would redirect the military, but rather that Trump supporters would goad troops into a “Boston Massacre Type Situation.” 

The big picture
This is all just the tip of the iceberg. What we know is this: Trump and allies plotted a coup. They were in frequent contact with the individuals who would ultimately attack Congress. At the very least, Trump and allies knew this attack would advance their aims while it was underway. Trump and allies also repeatedly resorted to pressuring the Department of Defense to involve itself in their seizure of power. Some at DoD may have supported this scheme; others resisted it. 

In the coming months, as we learn more information, it is crucial to tie these threads together, because, unfortunately, the Republican Party now has what they ran out of last January: time. They are using this time to restructure state elections and install Trump loyalists, thus laying the groundwork to make their next coup more successful. 

Magdi Semrau writes about the politics of language, science and medicine for the Editorial Board. She has researched child language development and published in the New York Academy of Sciences. Born and raised in Alaska, she can be found @magi_jay.


  1. Bern on January 6, 2022 at 7:42 pm

    And the shambling Coup2.0 is supported directly by hundreds of power-mad authoritarians who see a bright future for themselves in the coming theo-corporatocracy. The coup is also supported indirectly by the hundreds or maybe thousands of elected or appointed officials who fear for their own lives and their families’ lives, based upon the not-unreasonable supposition that Trump’s minions know where they live, and will at the first opportunity hunt them down and slaughter them.

  2. Dan Rahm on January 11, 2022 at 1:04 am


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